(2015 -by newscientist.com magasine)
The 2015 revealing of how the functioning systems work from parasitic wasps via the caterpillars using viruses to infect the hosts immune system when it starts from the components of a wasps DNA, which in my opinion, requires somebodies huge amount of higher level intervention and infinite IQ.
This example of parasitic wasps is insect to insect. I am also familiar about spruce bark beetle problems to trees with a bacteria raised by the beetle to paratize the tree defense system, so the beetle here is insect to plant.
For those in the sciences and into PNW conditions our main nemasis is strictly bacteria to plant, no insect needed. Since bacterias (ie. pseudomonas syringae, aka gummosis) have the ability to swim from location to locations of infection sites possibilties. And this is why bacterial gummosis is such an ongoing problem for us PNWesterners going forward too, So, with all this knowledge to organic gardeners please remember to shelter or use spray oils where possible (not sure oils work for this, adivice??).
I have noted recently that some of the efforts put forth all over the country involve some use of new organic sprays for the FireBlight bacterium and the colonization and protection of apple/pear flowers using methods with specialized yeast (a friendly) fungus. (found by googling "Ken Johnson" "fireblight" "yeast" etc), but other novel yet to be found defenses to ps exist.
These are not registered at this time for our PNW pseudomoads (ps), maybe they never will, but these latest (previous link) studies that involve PNW locals like Ken it won't surprise me that some will.